Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with obesity, vascular diseases, fractures and osteoporosis. However, men and women feature the incidence and the prognosis of the disease-related complications differently. Aims: To focus on selected adipokines and biomarkers of bone turnover and polyneuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients and to detect their relevant gender-specific associations.
Patients and Method: The study included 120 type 2 diabetic patients.
Out of them 52 (24 women and 28 men) described symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and 68 (25 women and 43 men) were without signs of DPN. Bone turnover biomarkers, neuropeptide Y (NPY), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and sTie-2 were measured in participants. Furthermore, levels of adiponectin, fetuin-A, glyceamic and metabolic parameters, and sex hormones were determined. Results: Levels of bone turnover biomarkers were higher in patients, particularly men, with DPN than in patients without DPN. NPY levels did not differ significantly in diabetic patients with regard to the presence of DPN. High circulating Ang-2 was associated with high prevalence of diabetic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In men, adiponectin associated with levels of testosterone. In women adiponectin correlated with the fatty liver index. In male and female, fetuin-A was related to the bone turnover biomarkers.
Conclusions: Male patients with DPN might be more susceptible for osteoporosis than male patients without DPN. High circulating Ang-2 indicates presence of CVD in type 2 DM. Tie-2 and NPY levels do not reflect presence of DPN. Low serum testosterone levels in men and high prevalence of fatty liver disease in women are accompanied with low adiponectin levels in type 2 DM. In male and female, fetuin-A might predict risk of osteoporosis