Abstract Bone is one of the few tissues in the adult human body whose ability to regenerate spontaneously has long been recognized, assuming that the defect does not exceed a certain limit in size. However, large defects caused by trauma, cysts, neoplasms, infections may not regenerate spontaneously and the use of surgical or pharmacological measures is required for complete regeneration. Because of the limitations of current bone grafting methods, alternative methods for repairing bone defects are needed.
Enamel matrix protein derivatives EMD has been introduced as a new alternative for predictably obtaining alveolar bone regeneration in periodontal therapy. Also bone morphogenetic proteins BMPs are known to be included among a number of factors that induce rapid bone formation.
The capability of BMPs to induce bone formation is well proven in animal studies and has recently been demonstrated in humans. BMPs have been shown to support the regeneration of alveolar bone through accelerating migration, proliferation and differentiation of bone-forming cells.
In recent years, the replacement of missing teeth by means of endosseous tittanium implants has been proven to be a successful treatment modality for both completely and partially edentulous patients. This concept is mainly based on osseointegration studies have investigated the ability of low level laser irradiation to stimulate both bone production and bone-implant interaction.
More recently, the influence of low level laser therapy on hard tissue regeneration has become a focus of sceintific interest. Numerous authors report in clinical and experimental studies about potential enhancement of bone regeneration by laser therapy. Experimental in vivo studies indicate accelerated bone repair in standardized bone defects and enhanced healing of artificial fractures. In vitro low level laser therapy results in significantly stimulated bone matrix formation in osteoblast cultures and promotes proliferation and maturation of human osteoblasts as well low level laser seems to enhance osseointegration of dental implants.
In conclusion, enhancing bone regeneration by clinical applicability of low level laser or different medicinal agents is a desirable outcome for all dental fields. Therfore, close attention must be paid to understand the biostimulatory effect of low level laser therapy in promoting bone healing and thus may be clinically beneficial in accelerating bone formation in skeletal defects. It may be also used as additional treatment for accelerating which means reduced treatment time.