The vitreous body, which fills the inside of the posterior chamber of the eye, can assume different anatomic configurations. During life, these range from complete attachment at the entire retina, to partial vitreoretinal adhesion and finally complete posterior vitreous detachment. The purpose of the presented thesis was to investigate the impact of these vitreous configurations on the efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, which is delivered as intravitreal injections and represents one of the leading molecular therapies in modern medicine. Presented in this thesis are four post-hoc analyses of major prospective, randomized clinical trials enrolling a total of 999 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and retinal vein occlusion, and a follow-up duration of 6 to 12 months. All patients received intravitreal ranibizumab based on pre-specified protocols. High resolution imaging of the posterior pole was acquired by optical coherence tomography, a state-of-the-art non-invasive technology. The configuration of the vitreoretinal interface was evaluated manually or by a custom-designed automated software algorithm. Functional outcomes in terms of change in best-corrected visual acuity were compared among different vitreous configurations as well as between different treatment regimens. The results of the presented studies show that the configuration of the vitreous has a major impact on the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy. In neovascular age-related macular degeneration, patients showing posterior vitreous detachment demonstrated optimal functional outcomes if ranibizumab was dosed only every three months. By contrast, eyes showing vitreomacular adhesion showed additional benefit from monthly dosing and combination therapy with verteporfin. In retinal vein occlusion, eyes with vitreomacular adhesion showed larger functional gains when compared to patients with posterior vitreous detachment. In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis provides evidence for the impact of different vitreous configurations on the efficacy of ranibizumab therapy for exsudative macular disease. The results may allow more personalized treatment decisions in clinical practice and may serve as a basis for future discovery of biomarkers in retinal imaging.