Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting women in the reproductive age. More than a half of PCOS patients are overweight or obese. Patients with PCOS have increased levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), while AMH decreases in obese women comparing to their lean counterparts.
Objective: To evaluate whether AMH levels differ in obese and non-obese anovulatory women suffering from PCOS under clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation.
Study population: A total of 63 patients (29 normal weight, 34 overweight-obese with BMI ≥ 25kg/m2) aged 19-35 years, had PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria, were recruited at the department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine of the Medical University of Vienna.
Results: The AMH mean value in the overweight-obese group was lower than that of the normal weight group, but the difference was not statistically significant (6.95 ng/ml vs. 9.39 ng/ml, P= 0.061). A subgroup of 55 patients received 50mg CC to induce ovulation. AMH levels were significantly lower in women who responded to CC in comparison to those who did not ovulate (6.84 ng/ml vs. 9.81 ng/ml; p=0.039). AMH had significantly the lowest mean value in overweight-obese patients who responded to CC (AMH 4.87 ng/ml; P=0.0343). An AMH cut-off value of 7.4 ng/ml had 92.3% sensitivity and 68.7% specificity to predict CC success in overweight-obese women with PCOS.
Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in AMH values between obese and non-obese PCOS women. Studying a larger cohort with a standardized BMI classification may lead to different results. Lower AMH values were associated with a successful induction of ovulation with CC.