Do parental separation and divorce influence childrens health? This paper reviews evidence about the consequences of parental dissolution and divorce on childrens health. First, factors of vulnerabilty, concerning age and gender of child, and risk factors are provided. The process-oriented perspective constitute mediators, like parental conflict, ineffective and diminished parenting and loss of important relationships, which are determining in the context of parental dissolution and divorce. Therefore, parental dissolution and divorce are associated with mechanisms, which are identified as stress-inducing and may link with physical, mental and social health impairments. The health impairments, among somatoform disorders range from allergodermia, infectious deseases, gastrointestinal disorders and neuroimmunological deseases to accidents, injuries and mortality. Concerning psychosocial disorders, parental dissolution and divorce increase the risk for ADHD, autistic traits, eating disorders, addictive dissorders, mental and behavioral disorders, social and school problems. On the basis oft he available direct evidence and theoretically plausible pathways, it appears that there is a cost of parental dissolution and divorce to childrens health. The resiliency and protective factors, which are associated with better ajustment following separation and divorce, are presented in positive relationships and vagal suppression as physiological adjusment mechanism.