Background: The increase in cesarean sections (c-sections) is a widely discussed topic nowadays. In the past years the c-section was only performed in emergency situations. However, nowadays cesarean sections with relative indications represent 90% of the cases and are not vital compared to life- saving emergency and non-planned sections. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the indications for emergency and non- planned c-sections (fetal asphyxia, umbilical cord prolapse, placenta insufficiency and failure to progress) with regard to the characteristics of the mother (age, gestational age, parity and body mass index). Furthermore, the maternal and fetal outcomes after emergency and non- planned c-sections were examined and compared to vaginal delivery. Patients and methods: A retrospective data analysis was performed to examine a sample size of about 35000 births between 2003 and 2015. The patients who underwent a non- planned section were divided into four groups, according to the indication, and differences between the characteristics were examined. Additionally, a subgroup analysis including emergency sections was performed. Results: In the non- planned sections (n=715) there was no significant difference between the indication groups (fetal asphyxia: n=254, umbilical cord prolapse: n=8, placenta insufficiency: n=25, failure to progress: n=428) considering body mass index and the age. In the emergency sections (n=111) there was no significant difference between the groups (fetal asphyxia: n=87, umbilical cord prolapse: n=3, placenta insufficiency: n=18, failure to progress: n=3) considering body mass index, the age and parity either. Compared to vaginal birth the hospital stay was significantly longer, the maternal blood loss higher and the Apgar score worse after non-planned and emergency (p<0,001). Conclusion: Between the patient groups and therefore between the indications for a non- planned and emergency section there was no significant difference between gestational age, age, parity and body mass index. The maternal and fetal outcome after non-planned and emergency sections was significantly worse than the vaginal delivery group. The fact that a non-planned or emergency section is performed based on a life- threatening situation, the clinical relevance remains doubtful.