This in vitro study was conducted to analyze the effect of air-powder abrasion on implant surface roughness change. The main goal was to determine if it is possible to achieve (Ra) surface roughness of 0.2 m on titanium dental implant surface using different air-powder abrasive systems under pre-determent working distance, pressure, angle and time? Additionally, gaining values for average surface roughness (Sa) was the focus of interest as it represents the only parameter that could predict oral tissue response in peri-implant healing.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
30 Classic® titanium alloy (TiAl6V4) implants (Green Implant System Technologie GmbH & CO.KG, Berlin, Germany) were used for the purpose of this study. Air-Powder abrasion systems selected were AIRFLOW® Classic Handy 3.0, PROPHYFLEX 3® Handy and RONDOFLEX Plus 360® with corresponding powders. Working settings were selected according to the literature proving the efficacy of working condition in eliminating bacterial contamination from titanium surface. The surfaces of threads (valleys and peaks) were analysed with green-light optical interferometry (Sa, Ssk, Sds, Sds) and stylus analysis (Ra and Rsk).
All of the powders used decreased the average surface roughness (Sa) on the peaks of the threads in comparison with the reference samples. Aluminium oxide powders were the only ones to modify the macrodesign of an implant.
Surface decontamination using selected powders and systems, save for Aluminum oxide, under chosen working conditions does not adversely change surface roughness values optimal for osseointegration. Abrasion with Aluminium oxide as a possible alternative to standard procedure of implantoplasty should be further investigated.