Iron accumulates with age in the normal human brain. This process is altered at several levels in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Since iron is mainly stored in oligodendrocytes and myelin in the normal brain, its liberation in demyelinating lesions may amplify tissue damage in demyelinating lesions and its uptake in macrophages and microglia may help to more precisely define activity stages of the lesions. In addition, glia cells change their iron import, export and storage properties in MS lesions, which is reflected by alterations in the expression of iron transport molecules. Changes of iron distribution in the brain can be reliably detected by MRI, particularly upon application of Ultrahigh magnetic field (7 Tesla). Ironsensitive MRI allows to more accurately distinguish the lesions in MS from those in other inflammatory brain diseases, to visualize a subset of slowly expanding lesions in the progressive stage of MS and to increase the sensitivity for lesion detection in the gray matter, such as the cerebral cortex or deep gray matter nuclei.