Extracellular vesicles, released from cells, are important for intercellular communication. They are heterogeneous but fall into two broad categories based on origin and function: microvesicles formed by outward budding from the plasma membrane; and exosomes that originate as intraluminal vesicles in multivesicular endosomes that fuse with the plasma membrane to release them. Extracellular vesicles generally and exosomes in particular have powerful effects on specific immune responses, and recent advances highlight their potential therapeutic uses. Dendritic cells (DC) that have internalized antigen release exosomes that express MHC class II molecules loaded with antigenic peptides, costimulatory molecules and intact antigen. Depending on the setting, these stimulate CD4 Tcell proliferation either directly or only in the context of accessory antigen naïve DC. Here, we discuss the reasons for this; and review current knowledge about the loading of antigen, class II and other cargo into exosomes released by DC and other professional antigenpresenting cells in the context of advances in exosome biology more generally.