Renal transplantation reduces the dramatically elevated risk of cardiovascular death in dialysis patients. We previously showed that left atrial diameter before transplantation predicts cardiovascular and overall mortality. Now, we investigated the association of changes in cardiac morphology after transplantation and mortality. We retrospectively analyzed data from the Austrian transplant repository using multivariable Cox and competing risk models and multivariable logistic regression for the prediction of changes in cardiac morphology. We identified 414 patients with a median followup of 8 years and observed a significant progression of mean diameter of left atrium (LA), right atrium and right ventricle and a significant regression of left ventricle. Complete case analysis of 243 patients with a regression of initially enlarged LA diameter had a significantly lower risk of adjusted overall and cardiovascular mortality; hazard ratio (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.300.69, P < 0.001, 124 deaths), and HR of 0.43 [95% CI 0.210.92, P = 0.029, 48 cardiovascular (CV) deaths], respectively. Only age at transplantation was significantly associated with regression of LA (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.600.93, P = 0.007). Patients with regression of LA after kidney transplantation exhibited a lower overall and CV mortality risk. Besides age, peritoneal dialysis and antihypertensive therapy were mediators of LA regression.