Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a hematopoietic neoplasm defined by the chromosome translocation t(9;22) and the related oncogene, BCRABL1. In most patients, leukaemic cells can be kept under control using BCRABL1targeting drugs. However, many patients relapse which remains a clinical challenge. In particular, patients with advanced (accelerated or blast phase) CML have a poor prognosis. So far, little is known about molecular and cellular interactions and features that contribute to disease progression and drug resistance in CML. One key prognostic factor at diagnosis is marked basophilia. However, although basophils are wellknown multifunctional effector cells, their impact in CML remains uncertain. In this article, we discuss the potential role of basophils as active contributors to disease evolution and progression in CML. In particular, basophils serve as a unique source of inflammatory, angiogenic and fibrogenic molecules, such as vascular endothelial growth factor or hepatocyte growth factor. In addition, basophils provide vasoactive substances, like histamine as well as the cytokinedegrading enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase IV which may promote stem cell mobilization and the extramedullary spread of stem and progenitor cells. Finally, basophils may produce autocrine growth factors for myeloid cells. Understanding the role of basophils in CML evolution and progression may support the development of more effective treatment concepts.