Personalized treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer based on clinical and molecular tumor features has entered clinical routine practice. The 2015 pathological classification of lung cancer mandates immunohistochemical and molecular analysis. Therapeutic strategies focused on inhibition of angiogenesis and growth factor receptor signaling. Inhibitors of angiogenesis and monoclonal antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor have shown efficacy in combination with chemotherapy. Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase have become clinically relevant therapeutic targets. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are also entering routine clinical practice. Identification of predictive biomarkers is essential and faces several challenges including tumor heterogeneity and dynamic changes of tumor features over time. Liquid biopsies may overcome some of these challenges in the future.